In this lesson, you are going to learn how to use the modal verbs could, should, would + past participle.
'Could have', 'would have', 'should have'를 사용할 줄 아세요? 이번 강의에서는 이 표현들을 완벽하게 사용하는 방법을 가르쳐 드립니다.
Past participle = the form of a verb, typically ending in -ed
As a general rule, past modal verbs are used hypothetically (i.e. to talk about things that didn't really happen in the past).However, check out the examples and explanations to get a better understanding of how and why they are used.
Could have + past participle
'…could have + past participle…' is used in situations where something was possible in the past, but you didn't do it for some reason.
* I could have gone to the party, but I decided to go to bed early.
* Josh could have bought the DVD, but he watched it on Netflix instead.
* He could have studied harder, but he was too lazy
'…could have + past participle…' is often used to talk about potential possibilities which were not fulfilled due to a lack of a specific condition or state. .
* If I was taller, I could have played basketball. (potential = play basketball | condition = taller)
* If I studied harder, I could have been a doctor. (potential = been a doctor | condition = studied harder)
* I could have bought a car if I didn’t lose my money. (potential = buy a car | condition = had money)
* He could have won the race, but he didn't try hard enough. (potential = win a race | condition = effort)
Should have + past participle…
'…should have + past participle...' is commonly used in situations where you had the chance to do something that would have been good or beneficial, but you didn't do it for some reason.
* You should have studied. (The person didn’t study.)
* He really should have done his homework. (He didn’t do his homework.)
* You should have called your mom. (He didn’t call his mom.)
* Sorry, I should have told you I would be late. (I didn’t tell you I would be late.)
'…should have + past participle…’ is often used to talk about negative results of failing to do something in the past which are currently evident or being experienced.
* I should have studied English at school because I can’t get my dream job without it.
* My mom is really mad at me. I guess I should have called her for her birthday.
* My skin is so red and sore; I really should have put on sunscreen.
'…should have + past participle…’ is also used when talking about something nice you could have done but didn’t for some reason.
* I should have bought you a coffee, but I didn’t know you were at the office.
* I should have told you the boss was angry, it just slipped my mind.
* I should have offered to give you a lift to work, but I didn’t know you lived near me until just now.
Shouldn’t have + past participle
'…shouldn’t have + past participle…' is commonly used in situations where you are talking about something you did that you regret for some reason.
* I shouldn’t have gone to that party; it was terrible.
* I shouldn’t have lied to my mom because now she is angry at me.
* I shouldn’t have punched my friend because now he hates me.
‘…would have + past participle…’ is often used to talk about something that didn’t happen for some reason. It is also used to talk about what you would have done in a similar situation.
* I would have called you, but it was too late.
* I would have stopped to talk, but I didn’t have time.
* I would have bought you a present, but I lost my wallet.
* I would have taken the job. (If I was offered that job, I would have taken it.)
* Josh would have eaten that burger. (If Josh was here, he would eat that burger.)
'…wouldn’t have + past participle…' is often used to talk about something that did happen, but would not have happened if it were not for some other contributing factor. It is also used to talk about something you would not have done if you were in a similar situation to the person who did a particular thing.
Examples * I wouldn’t have called you so late, but it is an emergency.
* He wouldn’t have quit his job, but his doctor told him he needed to reduce stress.
* They wouldn’t have protested if the government was competent.
* I wouldn’t have dated her; she is too dishonest.
* I wouldn’t have taken that job; the pay is too low. (Someone took the job even though the pay was low.)