In this forum we will teach you the grammar traditional English Grammar textbooks don't teach you. 교과서엔 없는 영문법을 알려드립니다.
To begin with, let’s take a quick look at the two different types of grammar - descriptive and prescriptive.
Descriptive Grammar: The structure of language as it is actually used depending on factors such as context, participants, and purpose. (실용 문법은 맥락, 화자, 목적에 따라 실제로 사용되는 어법을 의미합니다.)
Prescriptive Grammar: The structure of a language that is considered “correct” by conventional standards (i.e. how textbooks and English teachers think we should speak and write). (반면 규범 문법은 표준어 규정에 따라 “옳다”고 여겨지는 어법을 뜻합니다.)
As you will see on this forum, many of the rules and conventions used by native English-speakers are either not covered in your traditional textbooks and/or not covered in your traditional English classes.
원어민들이 실제 사용하는 많은 문법이 교과서에 실리지 않으며, 많은 사람들이 지나치게 표준 규칙에만 얽매인 방식으로 문법을 공부합니다.
We hope you enjoy these lessons as much as we enjoyed creating them.
오이스터카페팀이 즐겁게 만든 강의를 여러분들도 즐겨주셨으면 좋겠습니다.
As you know, there are two types of grammar - prescriptive grammar (what the textbook says is correct in formal written English) and descriptive grammar (the way native English-speakers actually use English in various contexts).
In this lesson we are going to use descriptive grammar to see how a noun can be turned into a verb (sometimes).
In English, (certain) nouns can become verbs by adding ing/-ed as a suffix. Some nouns have also become verbs due to common use (showing how English is always changing). The two most famous examples of nouns being used as verbs are:
Google (n.): company name
google (verb): to search for information on Google, and
Hoover (n.): company name (this company makes vacuum cleaners) (British English)
hoover (v.): use a vacuum to clean
How can you do it? Easy! Just choose a noun that is usually associated with an activity (e.g. movie, gym, coffee, beach, Starbucks) and add the suffix –ing/-ed.
Remember, unlike the two famous examples above, the noun + ing style of speaking is usually, but not always, used in the future continuous tense (and usually in question form).
1. Are we gyming tomorrow?
2. Are we caféing tomorrow?
3. Are we still dinnering tonight?
4. Are we pokering tomorrow?
5. Are we walking or subwaying?
6. I am gyming tomorrow afternoon. You?
7. Did you Starbucks today? (* The person you are speaking to always goes to Starbucks.)
8. Did you gym today? (* The person you are speaking to always goes to the gym to exercise.)
9. Did you see the Prime Minister got egged? (* Someone threw an egg at the PM.)
10. The President got milk shaked! (* Someone threw a milk shake at the President.)
Note: You can only use a noun as a verb if the person you are speaking to goes to the given venue on a regular basis, or knows you do.
Communication Tip: Only use this style of speaking with your close friends as context is important.
In this post we will look at how you can create your own adjectives using -able/ible.
-able/ible (suffix): do be able to be done; capable of doing; fit for; tending to; given to
The suffix -able/ible is often attached to verbs/nouns to express that the verb/noun is capable of being done or achieved.
If -able/ible is attached to a noun, then the noun is generally one which has an activity or action closely connected or related to it (most commonly used with nouns related to forms of transport)
Although English already has many-able/ible adjectives, you can still feel free to try to make your own.
Examples 1. Googleable (adj.): to be able to be found on the Google search engine
• Is that grammar rule even googleable?
• Are you googleable?
2. Busable (adj.): able to be traveled to by bus
• I don’t think it’s busable; we will have to take a taxi.
• I‘m pretty sure getting to COEX mall is busable, but let me check on my bus app.
3. Trainable (adj.): able to be reached or accessible by train
• I am pretty sure Busan is both trainable and busable.
• I am not sure if it’s trainable, but it is walkable.
4. Spoonable (adj.): able to be spooned out of; able to be lifted/eaten with a spoon
• Is that baby food even spoonable? It looks too solid.
• This stew you cooked is not really spoonable; I really need a knife and fork.
5. Swimmable (adj.): able to be swam; the defined swimming distance/speed is possible
• They once thought the English Channel was not swimmable.
• Is that river really swimmable? It seems too long.
6. Runnable (adj.): possible to run; the distance or speed of the run can be achieved
• What do you think is a runnable distance for a beginner?
• I know 1km is runnable, but is it jumpable?
7. Dateable (adj.): the type of person someone could date
• Mary is very dateable.
• Bill is not so dateable.
Note: Remember, when trying to create new adjectives, context is important. This means that the person you are speaking to should be able to understand the meaning of your new word by the context of the story or situation. Also remember, this style of speaking is often considered very informal.
In this lesson you will learn how to use stative verbs in the present continuous tense.
If you do a quick Google search, you will see that the overwhelming majority of English teachers tell you that you can’t use –ing with a stative verb. This is WRONG! You can do so in casual, spoken English. Actually, not only can you do it, it is rather common in informal situations.
Mc Donald’s slogan =I’m lovin’ it.
As you can see from the above example, using a stative verb with –ing can be done, especially when it is in the present continuous tense.
Check out the following examples to see if you can figure out how to use a stative verb + ing
Examples 1.Situation: Two friends are at the cinema. Bill: Are you enjoying this movie? Ted: Yeah! I’m loving it. You? Bill: (Hmmm) Not so much. Actually, I’m kind of hating it.
2.Situation: A guy has cooked dinner for his girlfriend. Mark: So…What do you think of the food? Jane: Honestly, I’m not loving it, but I’m not hating it. Mark: Oh, I’m really hating it; it’s disgusting! I’m so sorry I made you eat this.
3.Situation: Two people are arguing in the office about the way something should be done. Danny: Why aren’t you agreeing with me? Ben: Well, to be honest, I’m doubting your logic; It makes no sense to do it your way.
4.Situation: A teacher is talking to their student. Teacher: Ben, why do you keep looking around? Are you needing something? Student: Yeah, I’m needing a pen. Oh, and I’m also needing to pass that exam tomorrow. Teacher: (Ha ha) Yes, you are needing to pass that exam tomorrow. And yes, you are also needing to get a good result or you will fail this semester.
In this lesson you will learn how to prompt someone to finish your sentence and give you the answer you are looking for.
Hanging questions can be used when you know you should know the information you are asking for but for some reason can’t remember at that moment. You can also use this style of asking questions when you are talking to people you think will definitely have the information you need.
Hanging questions are formed by making a statement but leaving out the part you can’t remember. Use a rising intonation (usually on the ‘be’ verb) to signify you are prompting someone to complete your sentence or statement for you.
Note: Hanging questions are very informal, so remember to use a friendly intonation.
Examples: Check out these examples to see how hanging questions are formed and used.
1.Situation: Asking a zoo employee a question about closing times. Direct question: What time does the zoo close? Hanging question: The zoo closes at…?
2.Situation: Asking a theme park employee for directions. Direct question: Excuse me, where is the aquarium? Hanging question: Excuse me, I’m lost. The aquarium is…? (Pointing in various directions)
3.Situation: Angela is checking to see which coffee Vera wants. Angela: I’m going to the coffee shop; want anything? Vera: Oh yeah. That’d be great. Angela: OK. So, you want…? Vera: Oh, A café latte, please. Thanks.
4.Situation: Two friends discussing which movie to see.. Paul: Wanna see a movie this weekend? Satesh: Yeah, sure. I really wanna see the new Marvel movie. Paul: No… Really? Satesh: Yeah. Why? You don’t like Marvel movies? Paul: No, not really. Satesh: Ok. So you’d prefer to see…?
Are you a vegetarian, a pescatarian, or maybe a librarian? In this post we are going to learn how to make nouns to describe people who possess certain traits or opinions.
-arian (suffix): a person who practices, supports, or believes in something
The suffix –arian (sometimes changed to–tarian) can be used to change the meaning of certain nouns (commonly nouns ending in –ary, but not necessarily) and some adjectives into nouns denoting a person who advocates for, believes in, or behaves in a way commonly associated with the original noun/adjective.
vegetarian (n.): a person who only eats plant-based foods
pescatarian (n.): a person who does not eat meat but does eat fish
librarian (n.): a person who works in a library
veterinarian (n.): an animal doctor
parliamentarian (n.): a Member of Parliament; politician
The suffix –arian/-tarian can also be used to change certain adjectives (commonly adjectives ending in –ar, but not necessarily) into nouns denoting a person who advocates for, believes in, or behaves in a way commonly associated with the adjective.
Although there are dozens of words in English which already exist with the-arian/-tarian suffix, you can still have fun creating your own words.
For example, the term “vulgarian” was coined by John Cleese for the 1988 movie, A Fish Called Wanda. In the movie, Otto has just used several swearwords and expletives to describe Archie, so Archie describes Otto as a “vulgarian”.
Otto: (Swearing a lot at Archie) Archie: How very interesting. You're a true vulgarian, aren't you? Otto: You're the vulgarian, you (swearword)!
Examples (Note: All of the following examples include a made-up –arian word)
1.Situation: Two friends discussing which SNS they prefer. Bill: Steve, do you use Instagram? Jeff: Not at all; I’m a total Facebookarian.
2.Situation: Two friends discussing American money. Judy: I really don’t think our money should have “In God We Trust” written on it. Fran: Why not? Judy: Well, the state and religion should be separate, shouldn’t they? Fran: Oh, you’re a real secullarian, aren’t you?
3.Situation: Two friends discussing what to have for dinner. Jin: Do you want salad or sushi for dinner? Kim: Neither. They sound way too healthy. Plus, I’m a junk foodarian. So, how about pizza?
4.Situation: Two friends talking about cooking. Beth: Wow! This meal is fantastic. You are quite the culinarian, aren’t you? Hun-wook: Yes, I am! (Ha ha) I’m really glad you like my cooking.
Key Word Definitions
vulgar (adj.): lacking sophistication or good taste; unrefined
secular (adj.): signifying attitudes or activities that have no religious or spiritual basis
junk food (n.): food that has low nutritional value (often cheap and convenient)
culinary (adj.): related to cooking (Italian origin: culina = ‘kitchen’)
Tip: When trying to create your own words, remember that your made-up word needs to follow specific conventions (Review the examples again and focus on the syllable count, rhythm, and pronunciation of –arian/-tarian words to help you learn what these conventions are.).
In addition, since made-up words are usually informal, it is best to only create new words in informal situations where people know the context and topic of conversation.